1) B

Length of path = 3.2 km = 3200 m

Every 400m, there is a seat. Total number of seats = 3200 ÷ 400 = 8

We must add 1 to this value because we must count the one at the start. So total number of seats along the path = 9

There are 2 bins beside each seat. This gives use 9 x 2 = 18 bins.

Every 100 m, between each seat there is a bin. If we start from the first seat, there will be 3 bins between the first seat and second seat. Therefore, between 9 seats, there will be 3 x 8 = 24 bins.

Total no. of bins = 24 + 18 = 42

Alternatively, you can draw a diagram to help you. The circles are the benches and the red lines are the bins.


2) B

A – Wrong
11% (100 – 38 – 51) of the people have the VV combination. However, we are not given information about whether people with VV combination can get the disease or not. We cannot assume that those with VV combination will not be susceptible to the disease.

B – Correct
The second to last statement, which states that someone with the MV combination recently died of the disease. This means that having one V variant of the gene does not guarantee resistance to vCJD.

C – Wrong
Eating infected beef does cause vCJD in everyone with the MM combination. This can be inferred from the third to last line.

D – Wrong
51% have the MV combination. However, it is not entirely certain that all 51% of the people will develop vCJD in the future. There is no statement in the passage, which guarantees that all people with MV combination will develop vCJD.


3) D

The manager observed in the time period 10:00 to 12:00. We only need to focus on times, which are within this 2-hour period.

Phil:
Entered 9:27 and left 11:03. (Time manager observed = 11:03 – 10:00 = 1 hour 3 minutes)
Entered 11:42. (Time manager observed = 12:00 – 11:42 = 18 minutes)
Total time observed = 1 hour 21 minutes

Quentin:
Entered 11:23 and left 11:46. (Time manager observed =23 minutes)
Entered 11:42 and left 11:55. (Time manager observed = 13 minutes)
Total time observed = 36 minutes

Rob:
Entered 8:20 and left 10:17. (Time manager observed = 10:17 – 10:00 = 17 minutes)
Entered 10:26 and left 11:00. (Time manager observed = 34 minutes)
Entered 11:38. (Time manager observed = 12:00 – 11:38 = 22 minutes)
Total time observed = 1 hour 13 minutes

Sanna:
Entered 9:35 and left 10:10. (Time manager observed = 10:10 – 10:00 = 10 minutes)
Entered 10:16 and left 11:50. (Time manager observed = 11:50 – 10:16 = 1 hour 34 minutes)
Total time observed = 1 hour 44 minutes

Theresa:
Entered 8:44 and left 10:02. (Time manager observed = 10:02 – 10:00 = 2 minutes)
Entered 10:42 and left 12:25. (Time manager observed = 12:00 – 10:42 = 1 hour 18 minutes)
Total time observed = 1 hour 20 minutes

Sanna was in the office for the largest amount of time during the two-hour period. So D is the answer.


4) C

The argument implied by the text is that state nurseries should not be affected by financial restrictions. The person based this argument on his or her own experience (that their child blossomed at the state nursery).

Therefore, C is the answer.


5) D

We are looking for a person who uses 2 functions for the same time and 2 other functions for the same amount of time.

(The white section is equal to the black section. The light grey and semi-dark grey are equal in proportions too)

The darkest grey section is in lesser proportion than the light grey and semi-dark grey. So it cannot be Amos. She uses browser and social media for 30 mins but uses apps for 40 mins, which is more than browser and social media.

The darkest grey section is in a higher proportion than the white and black sections. It cannot be Bryn as calls are in lower proportion (10 mins) than email and apps.

It cannot be Clive, as he does not use any two functions for the same amount of time.

Dolly: Email and social media can represent the black and white (two smallest equal sections), calls and apps can represent the light grey and semi-light grey (two largest equal sections) and browser can represent the darkest grey section.

It can be Dolly.

Eshan uses three functions for equal amounts of time. So the pie chart cannot represent Eshan.

So the answer is Dolly.


6) C

The main conclusion is the last line of the passage.

A – mainly focuses on the regulation of social media whereas the conclusion deals with the relationship between social media and democracy. So A is wrong.

B – the last line uses the term ‘social media’ whereas option B uses the term ‘technological developments’.

C – Option C is correct because the last line states that social media has “undermined democracy”. Undermined means ‘lessen the effectiveness of’. So social media has basically made democracy weaker. C states this.

D – mainly focuses on the availability of truthful information whereas the conclusion deals with the relationship between social media and democracy. So D is wrong.

E – mainly focuses on organised protests and direct action whereas the conclusion deals with the relationship between social media and democracy. So E is wrong.


7) D

From floor 11, the nearest floor is 15. This is a difference of 4 (15 – 11) floors. It takes 3 seconds to move from one floor to the consecutive floor.
So total so far is 3 x 4 = 12 seconds

From floor 15, 6 and 24 are equally close to each other. However, previously, the lift moved from 11 to 15, so it is travelling upwards. Therefore, floor 24 is the preferred floor for the lift. It takes 9 x 3 = 27 seconds to do this.
So total so far is 39 seconds.

From floor 24, the lift will go to floor 6. This will take 18 x 3 = 54 seconds.
Total = 54 + 39 = 93 seconds

From floor 6, it will go to floor 4. This will take 6 seconds.
Total = 99 seconds.

However, the lift has stopped on 3 floors before opening at floor 4. These are floors 6, 15 and 24. We must 9 seconds for each floor. This is 27 seconds.

Total = 99 + 27 = 126 seconds

So D is the answer.


8) B

To solve this, we need to use the 2nd table and find the ratio of unpaid work of men and work for each age category. (Use approximate figures)

25 and under: 12/8 = 4/3 = 1.33

26 to 35 = 34/17 = 2

36 to 45 = 33/20 = 1.65

46 to 55 = 26/18 ≈ less than 1

(Of course you can calculate the actual figure but that would be a waste of time as we know that the highest figure so far is 2. If the fraction is definitely less than 2, there is no point calculating the actual ratio).

56 and over = 25/17 ≈ less than 1

So the answer is B (26 to 35).


9) B

1 – We cannot infer the exact amount of housework done by men and women as we are only given information about unpaid work.

2 – This is correct. If you work out the ratios of all the types of work, you will find that laundry is the type of unpaid work that men spend the least time on relative to women.

So only statement 2 is correct. B is the answer.


10) C

People with high income spend more time on non-leisure travel than people with low income.

(Please note that the word ‘cannot’ changes the meaning of the question entirely)

Option A is a plausible explanation. If people on lower incomes are less likely to have a car, they are more likely to spend less time on non-leisure travel.

Option B is a plausible explanation. If people on lower incomes do not commute to work so often, they are more likely to spend less time on non-leisure travel.

Option C is not a plausible explanation. If people on lower incomes use public transport, they would still be spending time on non-leisure travel. It does not matter whether they are driving or using public transport.

Option D is a plausible explanation. If the lower income group includes students who spend little time on transport, they are more likely to spend less time on non-leisure travel.

So option C is the correct answer.


11) C

Women carried out an overall average of 60% more unpaid work than men.

Value of total unpaid work = £1000 billion

We can make up an equation to state this. Let ‘Y’ be value of unpaid work carried out by men.

Value of unpaid work by women = 160% x Y= 1.6Y

Y + 1.6Y = £1000 billion

2.6Y = £1000 billion

(Taking 2.6 ≈ 2.5),

Y = 400 billion

Women did = 1000 – 400 = £600 billion worth of unpaid work.

The actual value would be higher as we rounded 2.6 to 2.5 so C (£615 billion) is the answer.


12) C

Customer 1 was not refunded any money because the train arrived only 1 minute late.

Customer 2 was not refunded any money.

Customer 3 would have been refunded $6 since their train was more than 20 minutes late.

Customer 4 would have been refunded $4 since their train was more than 10 minutes late but less than 20 minutes late.

Customer 5 would not have been refunded any money.

Customer 6 would not have been refunded any money.

Customer 7 would not have been refunded any money.

Customer 8 would not have been refunded any money.

Customer 9 would have been refunded $6 since their train was more than 20 minutes late.

Customer 10 would have been refunded $6 since their train was more than 20 minutes late.

Total money refunded by company = 6 + 4 + 6 + 6 = $22

So the answer is C.


13) D

The argument of the passage is the last line. According to the argument, it is better for young people to show aggression through rugby than by violent behaviour. (Hence rugby should not be banned).

1 – Correct
Since it is important for young people to channel their aggression in a controlled manner, activities such as rugby are important. However, if it is unfeasible for the school to replace rugby with other activities, rugby is the only activity by which young people can channel their aggression in a controlled manner. Therefore, this strengthens the argument as it suggests that it is important for rugby to be present in school.

2 – Correct
If aggression is a natural and unavoidable behaviour, it should be channelled in a controlled manner rather than channelling it through violent behaviour. Therefore, rugby is important for young people to channel their natural and unavoidable aggression. So this strengthens the argument.

3 – Wrong
This suggests that only rugby and no other sport can cause head or spinal injury. This weakens the argument as it suggests that rugby is the most dangerous sport and hence should be banned.

So D is the answer.


14) F

In such types of questions, look for the most mentioned name first. In this case, it is Roger. This is will be a start to the puzzle. Let us assume for now Roger belongs to a football team.

If Roger and Qayla belonged to a football team, Phillip mentioned both names correctly. So this cannot be the case.

If Roger and Phillip belonged to a football team, Qayla mentioned both names correctly. So this cannot be the case.

No one mentions Roger and Sam so this cannot be the case.

If Roger and Trista belonged to a football team, Sam mentioned both names correctly. So this cannot be the case.

If Roger and Ursula belonged to a football team,

Phillip, Qayla, Sam and Trista mentioned one name correctly and lied about the other name. This matches the conditions described.

So F is the answer.


15) A

1 – Correct
The Right promotes freedom and prosperity of the business which means that businesses should not be regulated and should be allowed to do things, which help them prosper. This is what newspaper owners do. Newspaper owners use their power and influence, which can be favourable for their businesses.

2 – Wrong
We cannot infer what political opinion is presented in the British press. So the 2nd statement cannot be concluded from the above passage.

So A is the answer.


16) A

The faster pump has exactly double the flow rate of the slower pump.

Let us say he uses the fast pump to fill the larger container first and the slow pump to fill the smaller container.

Let us say it takes 10 minutes (you can use any time as volume of containers is not specified) to fill the smaller container with half its volume. In 10 minutes smaller container will be filled with 60 litres (6 litres per minute) whilst the larger container will be filled with 120 litres (12 litres per minute). Using this assumption, smaller container must have a volume of 120 litres in total.

Now the containers are swapped with each other. The fast pump fills the smaller container and the slow pump fills the larger container. Both of them are filled at the same time. We have assumed that smaller container has a volume of 120 litres. Now that the faster pump is being used to fill the remaining 60 litres of the small container, it takes 5 minutes to fill the remaining 60 litres. Total time taken to fill smaller container = 15 minutes.

Slower pump is being used to fill the remaining volume of larger container. It already has 120 litres and it takes 15 minutes in total to fill the larger container.

In the remaining 5 minutes, the larger container will be filled with 6 x 5 = 30 litres.

Total volume of larger container = 120 + 30 = 150 litres.

Extra volume of larger container = 150 – 120 = 30 litres

Percentage larger = (30 ÷ 120) x 100 = 25%


17) A

The passage describes a cause and effect situation. For this question, you have to associate the cause described in the passage with the cause described in the options and the effect described in the passage with the effect described in the options.

Cause in passage = Whereabouts being kept secret or not
Cause in options = Tide being out or not out

Effect in passage = Risk management possible or not possible
Effect in options = Island can be reached or not

The passage states that if whereabouts were secret, risk management was possible. Replace this statement with ‘if tide is out, island can be reached’

The passage states that since whereabouts were not secret, risk management was not possible. Replace this statement with ‘since tide is not out, island cannot be reached’

So the answer should be:

‘If tide is out, island can be reached. Since tide is not out, island cannot be reached.’

This is given by option A only.

The other options confuse the cause and effect.


18) E

This requires just listing all the possible arrangements.

When 4 yellow and 2 red skittles are used,
There are 15 possible arrangements.

When 4 red and 2 yellow skittles are used,
There are 15 possible arrangements.

When 3 yellow and 3 red skittles are used,
There are 20 possible arrangements.

In total, there are 50 possible arrangements.


19) A

For this, you need to find the ratio of fatalities per crash.

8% of fatal crashes occurred during cruise but 16% of the fatalities occurred when the crash occurred during cruise.

Ratio = 16/8 = 2

Cruise is the phase of flight, which has the highest ratio of fatalities per crash. So A is the answer.


20) C

We must look at phases of flight from descent to landing. So the order is descent, then initial approach, then final approach and then landing.

Descent takes 11% of the time out of a 1.5-hour flight.
1.5 hours = 90 minutes
11% of 90 = 9.9 minutes

Initial approach takes 12% of the time out of a 1.5-hour flight.
12% of 90 = 10.8 minutes

Final approach takes 3% of the time out of a 1.5-hour flight.
3% of 90 = 2.7 minutes

Landing takes 1% of the time out of a 1.5-hour flight.
1% of 90 = 0.9 minutes

Total time = 9.9 + 10.8 + 2.7 + 0.9 = 24.3 ≈ 24 minutes

So the answer is C.


21) D

Out of all the options, D is the correct one.

A – Wrong
In 1990s, total number of crashes = 235
Crashes due to pilot error = 140.
Proportion = 140/235 ≈ 0.6
You can see that in any decade, proportion of crashes due to pilot error is approximately 0.6
So proportion of crashes due to pilot error was not unusually high in the 1990s.

B – Wrong
In 2010s, total number of crashes = 66
Crashes due to mechanical error = 11.
Proportion = 11/66 ≈ 0.17
You can see that in any decade, proportion of crashes due to pilot error is approximately 0.17
So proportion of crashes due to mechanical error was not unusually low in the 2010s.

C – Wrong
Proportion of crashes due to bad weather in 1960s = 14/248 ≈ 0.06
Proportion of crashes due to bad weather in 1970s = 13/238 ≈ 0.06
Proportion of crashes due to bad weather in 1980s = 11/205 ≈ 0.05
Proportion of crashes due to bad weather in 1990s = 13/235 ≈ 0.06
Proportion of crashes due to bad weather in 2000s = 7/112 ≈ 0.06
Proportion of crashes due to bad weather in 2010s = 5/66 ≈ 0.08
So proportion of crashes due to bad weather did not steadily decrease over the period.  

D – Correct
Proportion of crashes due to sabotage in 1960s = 12/248 ≈ 0.05
Proportion of crashes due to sabotage in 1970s = 25/238 ≈ 0.10
Proportion of crashes due to sabotage in 1980s = 23/203 ≈ 0.1
Proportion of crashes due to sabotage in 1990s = 19/235 ≈ 0.08
Proportion of crashes due to sabotage in 2000s = 10/112 ≈ 0.09
Proportion of crashes due to sabotage in 2010s = 6/66 ≈ 0.09
So proportion of crashes due to sabotage was unusually low in the 1960s.

E – Wrong
If you work out the estimate proportions, you will realise that the proportions of crashes due to other causes increased steadily over the period.


22) C

The reasoning in the last paragraph is that 2015 was actually the safest year on record if one discounts sabotage.

In order to discount sabotage (which caused the majority of the fatalities that year), one has to assume that sabotage does not make air travel less safe. So C is the answer.


23) B

Let the first digit be A
Let the second digit be B
Let the third digit be C
Let the fourth digit be D

B – A = 1

D – C = 1

A + D = BC

We know, B – A = D – C = 1
B + C = A + D

We also know A + D = BC

So,
A + D = B + C = BC
BC = B + C

There is only one possibility which satisfies BC = B + C. That is if both numbers are 2.
2 + 2 = 4
2 x 2 = 4

So B and C are 2.
A must be 1.
D must be 3.

So the code is 1223. The fourth digit is 3.


24) C

A is wrong because the passage does not say or assume that the only purpose of keeping domestic cats is to have a positive effect on native wildlife.

B is wrong because the passage says, “domestic cats caught and killed so-called invasive species”. So it is certain that numbers of invasive species decreased because of the presence of domestic cats.

C is correct because the passage only gives the example of Canberra. The passage assumes that Canberra is representative of the general environmental effects of keeping domestic cats.

D discusses the purpose of keeping domestic cats. However, there is nothing assumed about the purpose of keeping domestic cats in the passage.


25) B

The key to answering this question is realising that no charity will receive more than $100.

STARS will receive the second highest amount of money. We have no information about what the other charities will receive. We are given 5 options for what STARS’s least amount would be.

There will be three charities that will receive less money than STARS. We must use the options provided to work out the answer. By using each option, we must use the maximum amount that the remaining 3 charities will get.

If STARS obtained $25, we must assume that the 3 charities will get $24, $23 and $22.

This gives us a total of $94 (25 + 24 + 23 + 22). This means that the remaining 5th charity will get:
$200 – $94 = $104

However, this does not satisfy the condition that no charity can receive more than $100. So A is wrong.

If START obtained $27, the 3 charities will get $26, $25, $24.

Total = $102

5th charity will get = 200 – 102 = $98

So $27 is the least amount that can be given to STARS. So B is the answer.


26) D

The argument made by the passage is the sentence “More action is urgently needed…health and mortality.”

A neither strengthens nor weakens the argument, as it does not make a statement for or against breastfeeding.

B weakens that argument as it states that women in developing countries rely on bottle-feeding so it must be more beneficial than breastfeeding.

Although C states that commercial promotion of bottle-feeding is being limited by campaigns, it does not give a reason why breastfeeding is beneficial. So it does not directly strengthen the argument.

D states that breastfeeding is good for the mother and the child. Therefore, it strengthens the argument because it gives an additional reason why breastfeeding is beneficial. (It is good for the mother as well).

So D is the answer.


27) A

To get the least possible cost, the discounts must be applied to the most expensive pizzas on the order.

India’s pizza costs $5,

James’ cost $8. ($6 + $2 for one topping)

Keira’s cost $6.

Lance’s cost $8.

Maddie’s cost $12. ($8 + $4 for two toppings)

Nellie’s cost $9. ($5 + $4 for two toppings)

Nellie’s cost $10. ($8 + $2 for one topping)

The two most expensive pizzas are $12 and $10. Naturally, the buy 4 get 1 free will apply to $12 pizza.
Buy 1 get 1 half price applies to $10 pizza.

So total = 5 + 8 + 6 + 8 + 9 + 5 = $41.00
So the answer is A.


28) D

The passage tries to convey the message that routine health screening is not always the best option and targeted screening programmes are more beneficial.

Option A only discusses about better off people leading healthier lifestyles. However, the passage does not only focus on better off people.

Option B is wrong. The value of universal screening programmes has not been underestimated at all and this is not suggested by the passage.

Option C only focuses on breast cancer screening whilst the passage only used breast cancer screening as an example. So C is wrong.

Option D is correct because the last line of the paragraph clearly implies that instead of universal screening programmes, targeted screening programmes are more beneficial.


29) C

Let die with 0 to 5 spots be die X.
Let die with 2 to 7 spots be die Y.

In the diagram of the two dice shown together, the left die is die Y. We can come to this conclusion because 3 and 2 are adjacent to each other, which cannot happen in the die, which has 0 to 5 spots. So the right die is X.

A cannot be the answer. One of the faces of die in option A has 6 spots so it cannot be die X. It cannot be die Y because opposite faces must add up to 9 which means 6 must be opposite 3. In option A, however, 6 and 3 are adjacent.

B cannot be the answer. It cannot be X because 3 is adjacent to 2. It cannot be Y because if you try and align faces of die in option B exactly as it is in the picture of Y, you will realise that face with 3 spots swaps with the face with 2 spots.

D cannot be the answer. It cannot be X as one of its faces has 6 spots. It also cannot be Y. This requires good spatial visualisation skills. Let me try and explain. In the picture of Y (left die), one spot of 3, one spot of 2 and one spot of 5 all meet at one vertex (point of cube). If you try and align die in option D as it is in pic of Y, you will realise this does not happen. The following picture is a picture of what die in option D would look like. If you compare the following picture with the picture of Y, you will realise that D is not correct.

E cannot be the answer. It cannot be Y because 5 and 4 are adjacent to each other. It cannot be X because if you aligned die in option E as it is in pic of X (with 4 as top face), you will realise that in option E, 3 is in place of 2. So E is wrong.

Therefore, the answer is C.


30) D

The argument is that a transition from fossil fuels to biofuels is necessary. We must look for statements that weaken this argument, i.e. statements which say that transition from fossil fuels is not necessary.


1 – Wrong
If longer growing seasons and other impacts of climate change will lead to increased food harvests, it is will be feasible for the transition from fossil fuels to biofuels to occur. So this does not weaken the argument (instead it strengthens it).

2 – Wrong
Again, this statement shows how biofuels can be easily produced and hence, does not weaken the argument.

So D is the answer.


31) A

Let marks awarded for research = R

Let marks awarded for design = D

Let marks awarded for construction = C

Let marks awarded for evaluation = E

According to the information provided,

1) D – C = 2              (Rearrange to get C = D – 2)
2) D – E = 11            (Rearrange to get E = D – 11)

We know he got a total of 48 marks.
R + D + C + E = 48
R + D + D – 2 + D – 11 = 48
R + 3D = 61
3D = 61 – R
D = 61 – R/3

Now substitute the values of R given in the options.

Option A
R = 10
D = 61 – R/3
D = 61 – 10/3
D = 17

When D = 17,
C = 15, E = 6
Total = 17 + 15 + 10 + 6 = 48

So option A is correct. If you try all other options, you will either get decimals (which is incorrect as one of the conditions is that all marks are expressed in whole numbers) or incorrect totals.

Exception: Option D
When R = 13,
D = 16, C = 14 and E = 5
This also gives us a total of 48.

However, one of the conditions is that the smallest difference between the marks awarded to any two of Bruno’s sections was 2. If R = 13, C = 14. Therefore, the smallest difference would be 1 and not 2. So option D is also incorrect.


32) D

We cannot obtain the answer to this question from the tables. We know that ‘conditionally indispensable’ amino acids are those, which can be formed in our body under some circumstances.

The second paragraph gives information about how some amino acids can be converted into others (phenylalanine to tyrosine and methionine to cysteine). We can, therefore, infer that tyrosine and cysteine must be conditionally indispensable as they are formed in our body under some conditions.


33) B

According to table 2, for a person aged 19+, 5 mg/kg of bodyweight of tryptophan is needed.
Weight of man = 70 kg
Mass of tryptophan needed = 70 x 5 = 350 mg

According to table 1, mass of protein intake = 0.8 x 70 = 56 g
Per gram of protein, 4 mg of tryptophan is consumed.
Since 56 g of protein is consumed, mass of tryptophan consumed = 56 x 4 = 224 mg
Difference = 350 – 224 = 126 mg


34) A

Newborn baby
Mass of breast milk consumed = 560 g
Mass of protein consumed = 2.5% of 560 = 14 g (info from 3rd paragraph 1st line)
For each gram of protein, 55 mg of isoleucine is consumed.
Mass of isoleucine consumed = 55 x 14 = 770 mg

8-week old baby
Mass of breast milk consumed = 700 g
Mass of protein consumed = 1% of 700 = 7 g
For each gram of protein, 55 mg of isoleucine is consumed.
Mass of isoleucine consumed = 55 x 7 = 385 mg

Ratio = 770 : 385 = 2 : 1


35) B

We need to use the 1st table for this.

Ratio of threonine between infants and adults = 44 : 19 = 44/19

Using this ratio, we can find an estimate for histidine.

21 ÷ 44/19 = 21 x 19/44 ≈ 9 mg