It is important to think about this question logically.
The smaller sphere was initially uncharged (equal number of protons and electrons).
Then, when the small sphere was connected to the Earth, electrons started to flow from small sphere to Earth. This means that the small sphere started to lose electrons (i.e. started to lose negative charge). Hence when the small sphere was disconnected, its final charge would be positive. (more protons than electrons).
The larger sphere was initially negative charged (more electrons than protons). It was not connected to anything at any point in time. So, it would remain the same, i.e. negative charged and hence it would have fewer protons than electrons.
So, C is the answer.